The Most Important Step in Insights: Framing

“Hey Dave, I want to do some focus groups in Chicago.”

The number of times I’ve heard this statement from my clients eclipses the number of socks I’ve lost in the dryer.  My standard response is: “Ok <insert client name>, so why do you want to do this <insert methodology>?”

Sometimes I suspect the client really digs Chicago-style, deep-dish pizza and wants an excuse to get on a plane and gnosh, so I press further for real reasons to do the research. This is when the hard work begins.  You’ll never achieve a research goal that you can’t articulate.  Research goals start by identifying the underlying business goals.

Consumer research is much like creative development, in that it looks straightforward and is simple to do. People immediately want to roll up their sleeves and create a survey or focus-group guide. They want to design the approach for shopping ethnographies or the layout for product testing. That’s only natural. These are nice, tangible activities and, let’s face it, most people want to tackle nuts and bolts and quickly move on.

I strongly encourage restraint.  The most important step in conducting good research without wasting money is to focus intently on the business problem you are trying to solve.  Once that is specified and agreed upon, everything else fits easily into place.

Getting a client to articulate the business problem – and, if it’s a large organization, getting everyone to agree to it – is one of the most challenging tasks for a modern-day consumer researcher.

Here are legitimate, well-articulated business problems that need solutions:

  • Why are people defecting from my service/product?
  • How do I sell more of my service/product?
  • Which groups like my service/product and which groups don’t?
  • What is the optimum configuration of my product for a given group of potential customers?
  • How does my product/service compare to others?
  • Why don’t they like my service/product?
  • Who is my competition?
  • Are there enough people who like my idea to make it worth doing?

Depending on the industry, there are many ways to solve these problems.  Some involve conducting primary research. Other methods use a wealth of readily-available data; sometimes data that is free.  Most use a fusion of multiple sources of data to create a clear and compelling story.

After we nail the business problem, the next useful exercise is to use the Backward Research Process.  In concept, BRP is very simple.  It goes like this:  Imagine we have collected all the data, cleaned it, and integrated it. It’s deliverable and ready to go.  What are three to five compelling slides or illustrations we would want to show?

By creating a ghost deck – that is, a presentation with no data, or fictitious data – we can clear the fog to reach the next level of abstraction.   Now you have the business question nailed and have visuals for the presentation.  This will drive your entire research methodology and keep away the meddlesome interlopers who want to tinker with aspects of the research process.

For folks on internal research teams, this approach is also very helpful in confirming your internal client’s expectations of results.  The conversation might look like this with your internal clients:

Neophyte Researcher: “Hey Chief, is this what you had in mind?”

Executive: “My god man, you did the research already; you are super-human and deserve a promotion immediately!”

Neophyte Researcher: “Oh no, that’s just a mock ghost deck that I created using the backward research process, so I can determine if I am hitting the mark on expectations.”

Executive: “Well done. That’s exactly what we want to find out.  Have a donut!”

This approach has the added bonus, in the case of survey research, of not having to endure the dreaded survey review.  If you are unfamiliar with this painful sadistic process, it involves a researcher sitting in a room with 12 other stakeholders arguing about whether you should word a question as “prompt initial greeting” or just “initial greeting” for several hours.  Not a good use of anyone’s time.

If you hire good researchers, the client – whether internally or externally – should never have to even look at the survey.  The researcher has already done his or her homework to document both the objective and the outcome in advance.  Once you have that done…it’s all deep dish from there!

The Secret Sauce of Strategic Insight

I’m curious what makes you so curious Django said to the evil slave owner Monsieur Candy in Quentin Tarantino’s masterpiece Django.

A challenging question to a challenging question.

Some of the best conversations I have are the layered non-linear challenging variety where we just start to wander down into the abyss of questions and answers on tangentially related topics. A kind of conversational jazz riffing on a central theme but exploring interesting detours along the way.  The result of these conversations are often times inspirational and provide the kernel of an idea that can take us to great places.

As my colleague Ed Stalling pointed out a while back, this inherent curiosity is what makes for good researchers.  I can spot a good researcher within 10 minutes of talking to someone.  Those who are good at research are not only curious about exploring the data once collected, but more importantly bringing that inquisitiveness to the business of what questions to ask the first place. Of course figuring out the right questions to ask are driven by the objectives of the research.  Now it doesn’t sound creative or fun to come up with “objectives” but it sure can be.

For example, I once had a client convinced that the reason for the increase of SUV acquisition in North America was because of the increased pet ownership.  Wacky idea, but a testable hypothesis (it wasn’t).  Think of some of the more interesting stories in Tipping Point and Freakonomics.  They reviewed interesting findings such as the reasons for the reduction of crime or the current usage of birth control through not only careful data analysis, but by asking interesting questions.  It was a clever Portuguese in the early 15th century who said “I bet if we sail far enough West if we may show up in the East!”  Turns out he was right, flat earthers’s beliefs to the contrary notwithstanding.

The Wall Street Journal published an article a while back in which they discussed the “Andy Rooney” approach to business planning.  The basic gist is that in trying to do something truly new and innovative, you find the most prevalent annoying problem that happens to millions of people every day and ask, does it have to be that way?  It’s that first part that true researchers can be invaluable in addressing and, left unfettered to ask interesting questions, can help to unlock billions of dollars of potential.

But it’s not as easy as you think.  You have to get out your own way by throwing away assumptions.  It is way beyond challenging such idioms as “we have always done it that way” to going deep but keep it fun.  You have to listen.  You have to observe.  And you have to ask lots and lots of questions.

When I worked as an market research analyst I used to love to interrogate our buyer behavior data to find out little insight morsels such as what cops like to drive (F-150s), the most popular car color in Arkansas (White, followed closely by Red) or what brand has the highest penetration of lesbian buyers (Mini). Some had implications for marketing and product planning others were just fun factoids to annoy my co-workers and spouse.

I had a conversation with a friend who is responsible for a research group on this exact topic a while ago. He told me about a study conducted by the Corporate Executive Board that looked at a variety of factors that influenced being a successful researcher.  They looked at type of education, amount of education, breadth and depth of experience, and variety of other factors.  None of those attributes where significant predictors of individuals generating consistent strategic insight.  Guess which attribute did?  Intellectual Curiosity.

So, if you are interviewing for a research spot and need someone who is a rock star be sure to look at their experience and their education.  But the guy or the gal who has an obsession with maps, almanacs or trivia are the ones you to whom you might pay the most attention.  Listen for clues in their speech such as “I wonder why…”, “have you ever thought…” or “wouldn’t it be cool if…”

They enjoy walking in the grey, not the black and white.  They may look or dress odd, but there is a bright spark of inquisitiveness in their eyes which is sparked you ask about what interests them, what bothers them, what’s something interesting they could tell you that few others know.  They covet knowledge. They want to know what’s around the next corner. What lurks in the data waiting to be found.  They are not all innate conversationalists, but the good ones all share one thing in common.  They have a clinical obsession with wanting to know one thing: Why. 

Stay curious.

Crush Your Next Customer Experience Presentation with these 10 Tips

A very young petite brunette got up from her seat and walked to the front of the large conference room filled with mostly jaded middle aged men from the automotive industry give a presentation on, of all things, their customer experience results. The crowd simmered down and she smiled briefly at the room as the technician prepared the projection equipment. She ruffled through her notes.

I thought “Oh boy, she’s going to get killed.”

No one likes bad news, and in my experience, no one likes bad news less than millionaire dealership franchise owners. And for many there was going to be very, very bad news today. I almost covered my eyes as she started…it was that painful. And then something amazing happened.

She crushed it.

She got off the mark like a professional sprinter. Articulate and focused, it wasn’t about the slides it was about the message; stop trying to maximize short term profits at the expense of long term loyalty.

The entire crowd, myself included, badly underestimated her. This young women talked to these powerful men about their customer experience with respect, but clear confidence. She pointed out the strengths of their operations. But she also pointed out where improvement was needed. She didn’t mix words.

These dealers had a big experience problem with price negotiation. They were hanging on to the old “four square” approach to pricing and their customers weren’t having it. It contributed to strong feelings of mistrust. Modern customers demand more transparency in pricing or they will just pick up and leave.

She looked them in the eye and provided iron clad evidence of their problem using customer experience and financial data, but did it through relatable storytelling. Using data and anecdote as a one-two punch, she related a personal story of her own mother getting mixed up in a price negotiation at a local dealership. It didn’t end well. It was a lost sale for the dealership.

She wasn’t lecturing. She was approachable. She invited them in to comment as it was just a conversation. She smiled and cleverly countered objections.

“Hey kid, I make a lot of money using that technique” one veteran car guy challenged her.

“Well, maybe you do Bob. I will give you that. But most don’t”

She then produced a slide looking at the relationship between different pricing tactics and the impact on customer experience and average gross profit. Bob stopped talking.

 “Also, let’s think about the long-term consequence … do you think those customers will come back again? Where do you think they will service that vehicle? What will they tell their friends?”

I looked around. There weren’t one set eyes that weren’t on her and what she was saying.

Impressive. And then something else amazing happened.

At the break, I looked around the room. The entire audience was either on the phone or sending emails or both. I serendipitously eavesdropped a bit and could hear these dealers talking to their managers about the results and what should be done. Actually, the volume level of some would not merit a “talking” status, but more of a “yelling” one. Action was happening. Right there and then.

Creating the Killer CX Presentation

We’ve all been there. We’ve all seen a few of the VOC presentations like the young women above and some real train wrecks. But what separates great VOC presentations from the real stinkers?

As CX practitioners our main job is to draw people in, engaged them in the results, and ultimately get them to do something. If they don’t understand what they are looking at that won’t happen. If they don’t care or believe what you are telling them that’s a dead end too.

Only through adroit and impactful storytelling can we really inspire our audience to take action. Here are some the tricks that our young presenter used and you can too in delivering a rock star level VOC.

  1. The Wrapper Counts

Many people buy wine because of the label. It’s true. You chose your romantic partner because you were attracted to their appearance. People like beautiful things. This includes your presentation.

Attention to detail and making things beautiful will open people up to your presentation and make them pay attention. Make it look clean, uncluttered, and inviting. On this issue, it is instructive to listen to Sheryl, our veteran real estate agent, on how to sell a home through compelling presentation…

Make it look homey and comfortable, but like it could be the [prospective] buyers’ home…but WAY better. You want them to believe they would feel comfortable there… get rid of the clutter off of all the surfaces and get rid of the brick-a-brack. Make a beautiful canvas which they can complete to their desire…also use silver…silver sells

While I cannot vouch for silver selling, her other pointers are spot on. Make your VOC presentation for your audience. Make them believe they can live in it. Make it their own and eliminate clutter. If graphic design isn’t your thing, find someone who can help. There are amazingly talented people out there just waiting for a chance to help you.

  1. Define Your Story Arc

Story telling is an iterative process, doubly so for the CX and Insights professional. First, you need to figure out what the data is saying and then you need to figure out your story and how to say it. Don’t go near Powerpoint before you have a well-developed idea and plan on both fronts. Some of the more analytically minded may be tempted to put a question down and just answer it. Don’t do that.

People who know what they are talking about don’t need Powerpoint” – Steve Jobs

Create a story by following the familiar pattern of exposition, rising action, climax, resolution, and conclusion. Provide the ground work in exposition. Make a big uncomfortable problem for your audience. Make them squirm if you can. Make it build. Admire the problem and layer on other aspects of it. At some point, there is an apex and resolution. Then we reflect. Every great story follows some variation of this very simple and ancient formula. Make sure you follow some variant of this general arc to keep your audience engaged.

  1. Provide Context

Part of the story is defining why you are yapping at them in the first place. Sure, you have been heads-down looking at which kind of hair in the drain is the most distasteful to hotel customers, but your audience has no idea what you are going to talk about or why they should care. Set the stage. Provide some background and context about you are going to talk about. Talk about the industry, the competitive set, and trends.

Punch them in the face with something controversial to get their attention. Get them just a little off guard. Talk about anything in the set up that will answer the question: why should I care about your CX presentation today.

Sure, you are going to annoy some insiders with some review material, but people generally like to hear even familiar material. It makes them feel smart. They may even chime in with their own observations and comments which what you want from an engagement standpoint.

  1. Connect the Dots

I hate taco stands that only sell tacos. Ok, that’s a lie. I love taco stands that only sell tacos, but my point is people usually want more than tacos to eat. Your audience also doesn’t want to hear about just your quantitative or qualitative study even if automates turn signals for the elderly and enables orphans to divide by zero. Any attorney worth their $1,100 Italian shoes knows that multiple forms of evidence is much more convincing than a single source.

If needed you can use your VOC study as the center piece, but bring other components in to support and explain what is going on. Use operational, behavioral, market, sales or any other data that helps support your point.

This also has the added benefit of making you smarter and getting other folks in your organization engaged with what you are doing. Notice a dip in the availability of 60lbs parchment paper in Louisville? Get on the horn and find out. Talk to the district manager. Talk to the distributors. Talk directly customers. In short, roll your sleeves up and connect the dots for your audience. You find out some really interesting surprises in your investigation.

  1. Make it Personal and Relevant

The more authentic you are the more people will tune into your channel. Be yourself and relatable in delivering result. Make your presentation relatable to your audience. Masters of storytelling Chip and Dan Heath remind us that successful presentations are simple, unexpected, concrete, credible, emotional, and story based. Also, make “what’s in for me” central to the delivery. Making it personal and relevant for the audience will earn your audience’s attention and readiness for action.

I think presentation Jedi Nancy Duarte said it best her book Resonate:

The audience does not need to tune themselves to you—you need to tune your message to them. Skilled presenting requires you to understand their hearts and minds and create a message to resonate with what’s already there.”

Sure you want to let the data speak, but you are the presenter. You want them to remember the message and the best way to do that is to put on a personal level they can understand. Mix parables with parameters and facts with fables. This one-two punch of stone cold facts and personal stories are memorable and impactful

  1. Less is More

We have all heard the Blaise Pascal quote “I have made this longer than usual because I have not had time to make it shorter”. It is true, it is hard to distill down stories to the bare essence. If you are Mr or Ms. Clutterbug you will have an especially hard time with this. But you must get rid of everything unnecessary. You don’t need to show your work; the audience trusts that you did your job. Make your results as succinct and fast paced as possible, but not at the expense of losing your audience.

The same can be said for graphics and words. I am a Stephen Few fan (although I think he may be a tad too stoic for my graphics tastes) and a Hemingway fan. They both have the unique ability to pull away everything and leave only what is necessary, and in so doing, somehow leaving more. Applying this clean-up to your presentation will make for a tighter presentation and a much happier (and informed) audience.

  1. Invite the Audience In

Now-I-am-going-to-drone-on-for- 58-minutes-and-leave-the-last-2-for-questions presentation approach is a sure-fire way to lose your audience and not accomplished your most important task: communication.

Be brave and invite your audience in. If you are in person, ask them questions, even if it is a show of hands. Online, no problem, do a quiz such as those free ones by PollEverywhere. The show is oh-so-much more entertaining when you are not the sole performer. Also, be willing to pivot. Your job is communicate to the audience your message, however, that is done.

Everybody’s got a plan until I hit them” – Mike Tyson

Don’t be afraid to change gears up and abandon your plan if it’s not working. Stay agile and stay engaged with your audience. Remember your mission is to deliver the message and make it stick. Don’t be afraid to improvise a bit.

  1. Be Gracious

You know how much “thank you” costs? Nothing. No one likes someone who is condescending or taking sadistic glee at a particular region and product’s poor showing. Don’t hold back the punches, but be gracious and understand your political context. You can dole out the truth but not be ruthless and personal about it.

You are not the hero who will save the audience; the audience is your hero.” – Nancy Duarte

You are the Bruce Lee of VOC, dispassionately unleashing fists of truth against misconceptions and the unknown. Your opponent is the dark entropy of ignorance, not your audience members. Your audience members are there to learn, and ostensibly, improve the customer experience. You should, in turn, create a pleasant audience experience from them that is captivating, direct, but humble. Make it easy from them to believe you. Be their ally not their adversary.

  1. Remember Your Homebase

The best thing I learned in public relations training was to always return to your home base. What are the one to three points you are trying to communicate and stick with them over and over and over again. You might think this is annoying to people, and it can be, but not as annoying as you might think. You listen to yourself much more than anyone else does.

Don’t limit your home base communication to just your VOC presentation but add it to the upfront invitation and the after-event ‘thank you’ and action planning session. Get your co-workers to help out through communicating the main points either informally or formally throughout the organization. If you cannot tell me the three key points of VOC presentation you have not done enough cleaning and distillation. Get crisp and make sure you are always coming back to home base, over and over again. Oh, and practice.

  1. Provide a Call to Action

“Ok now do what we do?” the manager asked her boss. The presentation is over and now everyone goes back to work. That is a clear VOC presentation fail. You must have a call to action in your CX presentation and ideally make it specific, time-bound, and connected to specific people.

The more personal and public these commitments are the more likely they are to get done. If that doesn’t conform with your organization’s culture then find another way to “commit to a commit” where people are committing to do some specifically in the future in the way of acting on the results.

The shelf life of insights is extremely short in the world of CX. The more time that elapses from your VOC presentation to action, the less likely it is to happen. I recommend reminding audience attendees what the expectations will be from them as a result of the presentation in advance. There is no free admittance to your amazing presentation after all. Organizations invest a bunch in time and people to deliver the VOC results, it is a crime to waste that effort by organizational impotency.

Beyond the Presentation

Dashboards and technology can only get us so far in Customer Experience, it takes a human interpretation and cheerleader to spur action. This is especially true in the early stages of CX initiatives in an organization.

If you are responsible for getting the word out, you have a very important job that transcends the hour or so of the presentation. Before and after it is a constant marketing campaign by you and your team to evangelize CX. Take bits of your presentation and include it emails. Go visit the head of operations or marketing on a regular basis. Action happens when someone is insisting on it. Be that change agent and use compelling story telling to create reason for change.

Be like the young lady who persuaded those millionaire dealers to swallow a 500mg truth pill. She gave a persuasive and compelling argument to a tough audience that resulted in positive change. She continues to provide those compelling arguments to this day. Sometimes to a corporate audience and sometimes to our children, the latter being a one of the toughest audiences you are going to find. I find it’s always good to learn from your spouse. I continue to learn every day.

What is Your CX Leadership Style?

I have had the pleasure of working with many CX professionals over the years, most of whom were (and are) very effective at their job. The core leadership trait that they share is they are fervent change agents for the organization. The status quo to them is unacceptable and, as leaders, they are usually tapped to do the job of CX transformation for that reason.

These leaders want to do things differently as it relates to customer practices and policies. Very often CX leaders (CCO, CXO etc) are imported from different areas of the organization such as marketing, operations, call center operations human resources, etc. They bring that perspective to the job, but the effective ones usually speak several functional languages which helps them in boundary spanning to bring the organization together to one common CX cause.

While these leaders come in all forms, over the years I have seen a few clear archetypes emerge. Usually CX leaders are a blend of these archetypes, but I have seen a few purebreds in nature. Each archetype has inherent strengths and weaknesses. Here’s who they are and potential blindspots to be mindful of.


 The Technocrat

For this CX leader it is all about technology. CRM, CFM, AI, APIs, Chatbots, you name it. If its technology that fixes a problem it is awesome. In fact, sometimes technology is proffered by the Technocrat to find a problem to solve. As the tool keeper this role is invaluable, however, sometimes this kind of leader underplays the importance of people and culture in CX transformation. They tend to lean in to process and automation as a way of “reducing the friction” for customers.

While the Technocrat is a critical member of any team, too much emphasis on technology will result in a well-equipped organization that doesn’t know how to use the tools they have effectively.

Advice to the Technocrat: All roads don’t lead to technology. You must also consider the human element. If this is not your passion or strong suit, find someone who can help you out to consider other elements in creating sustainable change.

The Rebel

This leader might open a meeting with “I have come here to kick ass and chew bubble gum…and I am all out of bubblegum”. This person likes to get things done. And if you are not going to help, well…the Rebel will just find some other way to do it. They are all about innovation and doing things different. They inspire people who want to change and are despised by the folks how prefer the status quo.

While the Rebel is very effective in initiating new approaches and moving the organization forward he or she may be easily distracted by new and exciting things. The sometimes lack the discipline of staying focused and on task. Also, in connecting the dots before others can, they don’t always bring others along with them. A leader with no one following him or her is just taking a walk.

Advice to the Rebel: You need to bring along the crowd. You are innovative but you must inspire others to follow you…even if they think differently than you. Partner up with a cheerleader who can help bring others along with you. Also find ways to stay focused on the core mission at hand.


The Bulldozer

The bulldozer also gets things done. A true planner, the Bulldozer pushes their agenda through organization at a measured, but unstoppable pace. They are relentless. Oftentimes the Bulldozer has high street cred bolstered by a mandate from CEO or President. If you get in the Bulldozers way, you will be run over.

The Bulldozer style can be very effective. However, the “resistance is futile” credo of the Bulldozer can sometimes be off-putting…and create localized insurrections. There is a time for Bulldozer and there is time for a bit more of finesse.

Advice to the Bulldozer: Occasionally you need to look up from your steering wheel and course correct. You also have to realize that if everyone is quiet it doesn’t mean they agree with you. Show empathy and try and at least entertain flexibility in your planning.

The Tactician

Check lists, timelines, traceability, accountability; the Tactician is the Johnny-on-the-spot of getting things done. With the tenacity of a software salesperson, the Tactician will hunt you down if you fail to make your deliverable date. If you don’t respond to the Tactician’s emails…he will go into Terminator mode and find you. In short, the Tactician gets things done through pure tenacity. The downside is; he or she may get so far down in the weeds on implementation that they may not come back up and recheck their assumptions as the environment changes.

Readjustment can be difficult for the Tactician. Also, they oftentimes need the help of other archetypes (such as the Philosopher and Technocrat) to develop the overall strategy.

Advice to the Tactician: Project plans are great, but you also need to be willing to reforecast when appropriate and re-plan. While communication is not your short-coming per se, explaining why something is important and may be something you overlook. You need to remember that these are people who you are dealing with not just cogs in the machine. The Tactician works well with others who need a bit more structure in their life such as the Rebel and…


The Guru

Another form of CX change agent is the philosopher of the CX world; the CX Guru. Gurus loves talking about theory and case studies. They inspire people with their oratory powers and really get people excited about the vision of where the company is going. Unfortunately, the Guru has one weakness; he or she is a philosopher not a necessarily do-er.

All talk and wishful thinking about organizational change is not a sustainable plan to improve the organization. Change starts when something happens. In order for happen to happen there must be a plan.

Advice to the Guru: Find a Tactician, Rebel, or Bulldozer with whom to work. You need to find someone who will bring your ideas to life. You need someone who will help you execute. “Thought leadership” by itself is useless unless you have a plan to implement. Always keep the real business needs as top of mind and back into how that connects with your ideas around CX.

The Diplomat

Probably the most effective form of change agent is the Diplomat. This is someone who has the mandate of very senior management and projects an executive presence. They don’t yell. They don’t threaten. They smile. They are confident. They make deals. The Diplomat knows everyone has an agenda and an end goal and she is the master deal maker in making things happen. She also knows that sometimes there is no deal to be made…so situations must be escalated.

While you see the slow advance of the Bulldozer and the crazy antics of the Rebel well ahead of time, the Diplomat uses the backroom to get things done. In the rare instance the Diplomat comes to an impasse with someone, many times that person will silently and unceremoniously just disappear from the organization or parked somewhere where they are no longer an obstacle. “Poof” problem solved. Gracious, consistent, and congenial; the Diplomat is deadly effective.

Advice to the Diplomat: The diplomat is a smooth operator, but she may get a wrapped in all dealing and no doing. Team up with those who can help you activate (Tactician, Bulldozer) and help you think (Technocrat, Guru). You can get the deal done, but you will usually need the help of others for the substance.

What Kind of CX Change Agent are You?

Change agents come in all forms and flavors. Many individuals are hybrids of these archetypes, but I am sure some of these may be familiar to you. The truth of effective organizational change is in having a contingency approach to the needs of the organization as it matures. Early on some Rebels are needed. Gurus are needed for inspiration and to motivate the crowd.

Other times Bulldozer techniques are required and the deployment of the tools in the Technocrat’s toy box are very appropriate. The Tactician skill set is always a welcomed addition to a team to get things done especially when coupled with vision of the Guru. And of course, we all need more Diplomats in our organizations.

We can look at these roles across a Relational vs. Functional1 and a Thinking vs. Doing orientation to CX change leadership. As mentioned, people do not fit nicely into each of these rolls, but they certainly have tendencies and preferences in style.


The CX Change Agent Circumplex

The truth is there is usually not just one style that get things done effectively; it is a team effort. Finding the “purple squirrel” of the ideal change agent is a hopeless cause. An ideal leader in CX change (or really any change) is one that can complement his or her strengths with the skills of others on the team2. Balance your team out. Know who you are and find who can help complement your skill set.

So what kind of CX change agent are you? Who are you missing on your team to create sustainable organizational change? Have you ever seen a purple squirrel?


1. Forsyth, Donelson R. (2010). Group Dynamics 5th edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning